The Desired Concept Maps and Goal Setting for Assessing Professionalism in Medicine
This review aims to describe some of the popular assessment tools that are being used to assess professionalism with a view to formulate a framework of assessment of professionalism in medicine. Several online research databases were searched for articles published from 2000-2015 using MeSH terms “professionalism” AND “duty” AND “assessment” OR “professionalism behavioral” AND “professionalism–cognitive.” 35 articles were selected for this review. In summary, several assessment tools are available for assessing professionalism that includes, but not limited to, mini clinical evaluation exercise, standardised direct observation of procedural skills, professionalism mini-evaluation exercise, multi-source feedback and 360 degree evaluation, and case based discussions. Because professionalism is a complex construct, it is less likely that a single assessment strategy will adequately measure it. Since every single assessment tool has its own weaknesses, triangulation involving multiple tools can compensate the shortcomings associated with any single approach. Assessment of professionalism necessitates a combination of modalities at individual, interpersonal, societal, and institutional levels and should be accompanied by feedback and motivational reflection that will, in turn, lead to behaviour and identity formation. The assessment of professionalism in medicine should meet the criteria of validity, reliability, feasibility and acceptability. Educators are urged to enhance the depth and quality of assessment instruments in the existing medical curricula for ensuring validity and reliability of assessment tools for professionalism.
Definitions & Frameworks